Teaching Montessori at home
     


          Programme for Teaching Montessori at home                   
          Montessori Training
          Maria Montessori

          The Montessori Method
          MONTESSORI TEACHERS
       
The Montessori 0-3 Program
          
Educational Materials for 0-3 age
          EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS AND MATERIALS - BIRTH TO AGE 12+
         
        
Programme for Teaching Montessori at home - Montessori Training

In the SCHR Institute at present, training for teachers is offered through the Studies Computer Handicapped Research Montessori International/Syria, The programme prepared by eng. Nabil Eid including E- Learning for special needs and teaching Montessori in the home.E-Programme for Teaching Montessori in the Home

What are the child's nature and needs? How are they different from those of an adult? How can we best foster the child's development so as to help him maximize his potential for productivity and happiness in life? Current research validates Montessori's ideas. We believe that, on the whole, the philosophy of the child developed and the teacher Maria Montessori, is most consistent with the Objectivist view of human nature, needs, and values.

Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori, the first woman to graduate from the University of Rome Medical School, became a doctor in 1896. Her first post was in the university's Psychiatric Clinic.

In that age, retarded children were considered a medical problem, rather than an educational one, and were often kept in hospitals for the insane. Montessori's visits with children in Roman insane asylums prompted her to study the works of Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1775-1838) and Edouard Seguin (1812-1880), two French-born pioneers in education for the mentally deficient. She went on to read all the major works on educational theory of the previous two centuries.

In 1899, Montessori became director of the State Orthophrenic School, where her work with the retarded was so successful that the majority of her students were able to pass the state education exams. While other people exclaimed over this phenomenal success, Montessori pondered its implication for normal children. If the mentally deficient could do as well on the exams as normal children, in what poor state must those normal children be! This reflection led her to devote her life to education.

Montessori opened her first Casa dei Bambini (Children's House) in 1907, applying to children of normal intelligence the methods and materials she had developed for deficient children. She also spent a great deal of time observing and meditating on what children did with her materials—what brought out their best learning and their greatest enthusiasm.

As a result of Montessori's achievements at the Casa dei Bambini, her method spread rapidly. By 1915, over 100 Montessori schools had opened in America, and many more had opened in the rest of the world. In Switzerland, one of the most important 20th-century theorists in child development—Jean Piaget (1896-1980)—was heavily influenced by Montessori and her method. Piaget was director of the modified Montessori school in Geneva, where he did some of the observations for his first book, Language and Thought of the Child, and served as head of the Swiss Montessori society.

Maria Montessori, Her Life and Work, by E.M. Standing, is an interesting historical account told from the viewpoint of a devoted follower.

The Montessori Method

Maria Montessori's own works constitute the best source of information concerning her theories and methods. The Montessori Method, the first overview of her educational techniques, remains the best in many respects. Dr. Montessori's Own Handbook goes into the details of her philosophy, materials, and methods. The Discovery of the Child is a later detailed summarization of Montessori's philosophy and method of teaching, with much discussion of the child's nature and the best means of approaching the child with work. The Secret of Childhood is a history of what—and how—Montessori learned about the unique nature of children, the problems that can arise when the child's nature is not properly nurtured, and the repercussions that proper and improper nurturing of the child have on society. This work is especially recommended for parents.

According to Maria Montessori, "A child's work is to create the person she will become." To carry out this self-construction, children have innate mental powers, but they must be free to use these powers. For this reason, a Montessori classroom provides freedom while maintaining an environment that encourages a sense of order and self-discipline. "Freedom in a structured environment" is the Montessori dictum that names this arrangement.

Like all thinkers in the Aristotelian tradition, Montessori recognized that the senses must be educated first in the development of the intellect. Consequently, she created a vast array of special learning materials from which concepts could be abstracted and through which they could be concretized. In recognition of the independent nature of the developing intellect, these materials are self-correcting—that is, from their use, the child discovers for himself whether he has the right answer. This feature of her materials encourages the child to be concerned with facts and truth, rather than with what adults say is right or wrong.

Also basic to Montessori's philosophy is her belief in the "sensitive periods" of a child's development: periods when the child seeks certain stimuli with immense intensity, and, consequently, can most easily master a particular learning skill. The teacher's role is to recognize the sensitive periods in individual children and put the children in touch with the appropriate materials.

Montessori also identified stages of growth—which she called "Planes of Development"—that occur in approximately six-year intervals and that are further subdivided into two three-year segments. These planes of development are the basis for the three-year age groupings found in Montessori schools: ages 3 to 6, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, and 12 to 18.

From birth to age six, children are sensorial explorers, studying every aspect of their environment, language, and culture. Montessori's The Absorbent Mind provides a detailed discussion of how the child's mind and needs develop during this period.

From age six to twelve, children become reasoning explorers. They develop new powers of abstraction and imagination, using and applying their knowledge to further discover and expand their world. During this time, it is still essential that the child carry out activities in order to integrate acting and thinking. It is his own effort that gives him independence, and his own experience that brings him answers as to how and why things function as they do. Montessori's The Montessori Elementary Materials discusses the materials and curriculum to be used for children during this period.

From Childhood to Adolescence, also by Montessori, outlines the changes children undergo in mentality and outlook as they grow from childhood to adolescence, and the nature and needs of the adolescent child. She also proposes a radical concept of schooling for the adolescent.

Valuable secondary works on the Montessori method include Elizabeth Hainstock's Teaching Montessori in the Home: The Preschool Years, and Teaching Montessori in the Home: The School Years. Both give an abbreviated view of the philosophy and the method, as well as detailed instructions on how to make and use the materials. Paula Lilliard's 1972 work, Montessori: A Modern Approach, reviews the history and nature of the Montessori philosophy, discussing how "current" it is in addressing modern educational concerns and what it has to offer the contemporary family.

Throughout her writing, Montessori combines keen observations and insights with a heroic view of the importance of the child's work in self- development—work by which each man creates the best within him. Many writers and critics dislike Montessori's romantic rhetoric, and admittedly her phraseology tends to the mystical. Nevertheless, we find her language refreshing and inspiring. As the following sentence illustrates, she always keeps in mind the glory and grandeur of human development:

"Humanity shows itself in all its intellectual splendor during this tender age as the sun shows itself at the dawn, and the flower in the first unfolding of the petals; and we must respect religiously, reverently, these first indications of individuality."

The Montessori method always places its principles and activities in the broad context of the importance of human life and development, intelligence and free will. Indeed, one of the cornerstones of the Montessori method is the presentation of knowledge as an integrated whole, emphasizing conceptual relationships between different branches of learning, and the placement of knowledge in its historical context.

MONTESSORI TEACHERS

The adult in charge of these environments requires unique preparation. The traditional Montessori training is a full year of graduate work for each of the following three age levels, and stages of development, of children: Birth to three years Three years to six years Six years to twelve years. The Montessori middle and high school teacher ideally has taken all three training courses plus graduate work in an academic area or areas.

Out of a spirit of enthusiasm for following Dr. Montessori's ideas there is a wide variety of teacher preparation. Some have taken intensive, year-long graduate courses, studying under experienced master teachers who have themselves undergone an exacting teacher-training certification program of several years duration. These Montessori teacher-trainees have earned their certification by passing rigorous practical, written, and oral exams. Others have simply read one of Dr. Montessori's books and applied some of her ideas in a daycare environment. Between these two extremes there are many other examples and no official check on the use of the word "Montessori." Due to the wide variation of the preparation of adult there is a corresponding variety in the success and quality of schools.

We know that allowing for the work of the inner guide is the hardest part of working in the classroom. It is easy to emphasize our own agenda; to weigh the academics disproportionately, to push for the quick solution, to substitute our will for the child's. It is so difficult to keep from over-directing, to observe without judgment, to wait for the child to reveal herself. Yet, over and over again, when we do honor that inner guide, the personality unfolds in a way that surprises - that goes beyond what we could direct or predict.

The Montessori 0-3 Program
Over fifty years ago Dr. Montessori realized that working with children older than three was too late to have the most beneficial effect on the life of a human, and she initiated what was to become a two-year, full-time, course for adults living or working with children from birth to three years of age.

Educational Materials for 0-3 age
A sparse environment of carefully chosen materials calls the child to work, concentration, and joy. A crowded or chaotic environment can cause stress and can dissipate a child's energy.

Before the age of six, a child learns from direct contact with the environment, by means of all the senses, and through movement; the child literally absorbs what is in the environment. The toys and materials in the home and school should be of the very best quality to call forth self-respect, respect and care from the child toward the environment, and the development of an appreciation of beauty.
Montessorians are very cautious about allowing children to be guinea pigs for the use of new inventions, and in the long history of humans on earth, both computers and televisions are very recent inventions. We are finding out that even such relatively simple objects as pacifiers and walkers get in the way of optimal and healthful development, and recent brain research reveals to us that computers and television may have far more negative influences on our children's development than positive. They affect the child so much more because of the inordinately large amount of time spent in front of them in some situations.



EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS AND MATERIALS - BIRTH TO AGE 12+

A sparse environment of carefully chosen materials calls the child to work, concentration, and joy. A crowded or chaotic environment can cause stress and can dissipate a child's energy.

As Montessori education becomes more popular more materials are produced which are labeled "Montessori" and one must be more and more careful in selection. Too many materials, or inappropriate materials can be worse than too few.

Birth to Age Six: Before the age of six, a child learns from direct contact with the environment, by means of all the senses, and through movement; the child literally absorbs what is in the environment. The toys and materials in the home and school for this period of development should be of the very best quality to call forth self-respect, respect and care from the child toward the environment, and the development of an appreciation of beauty.
Age Six to Twelve:
From age six to twelve, "the age of the Imagination," the children produce so much -- charts, models, books, timelines, maps, books, plays, etc. -- that the environment must be continually pared down to the essentials so that the children continue to create. Sensorial-manipulative materials, such as multiplication bead frames, can also be used for older children, but should be left behind as soon as the child is ready to work in the abstract.  
Age Twelve +: From age twelve to eighteen, the child's education becomes more traditional: books, computers, and the tools of the place where he may be apprenticing or doing social work. This is transition to adult life during which time the child learns to function in the real world.  The environment now includes the farm, the public library, the work place, the large community.

At all ages, since the adult's special interests usually lie in one or two areas of study, we must be sure to introduce him to materials and lessons in all areas, all kinds of experiences, and not limit him to our own interests. In the words of the famous music educator Dr. Shinichi Suzuki, "What does not exist in the cultural environment will not develop in the child."

for more information find website:

www.montessori.edu

http://www.unitedmontessori.com/

http://www.objectivistcenter.org/